Tag Archives: Playstation

Klonoa and its distinct 2.5D camera system


Klonoa: Door to Phantomile (and its Wii remake) is a side-scrolling platform game viewed from a “2.5D” perspective. The player moves the protagonist, Klonoa, along a path in a two-dimensional fashion, but the game is rendered in three dimensions. This allows the path followed to curve and for the player to interact with objects outside of the path.


The term “2.5D” is also applied (though mathematically incorrect) to 3D games that use polygonal 3D graphics in order to render the world and characters, but the gameplay is still restricted to a 2D plane or gameplay system. The term is rather loose as term because it generally refers to any game with 3D graphics that feature any sort of 2D playing style.

For example, the Crash Bandicoot games of the Playstation 1 were considered 2.5D because despite the 3D graphics, most levels are not as free roaming as its competitor at the time Super Mario 64. There were even some levels where you can only traverse left and right (except maybe a part at the beginning and end where you move to and from your goal).


The main problem is that the assumption of Crash Bandicoot being 2.5D is based on shallow aspects such as level layout and camera perspective of those levels, I’m not saying they’re not important, but in this case those aspects don’t make it a 2.5 game.


The New Super Mario Bros. are also considered examples of the sub-genre as it uses 3D models and animations, but other than that it’s strictly 2D, the 3D parts of it are mere aesthetics. Layout, design, play style and controls, all of it is 2D. Street Fighter IV is another game considered 2.5D for similar reasons due to its 2D gameplay coupled with its 3D rendering.

I consider Klonoa to be the purest example of the subgenre because the combined design of the level layout, the gameplay and especially the camera angle are all 2D with 3D elements thrown in which is essentially the textbook definition of the term.


Like many platformers you have a camera that interpolates accordingly along with the character’s ever changing position in a similar manner to other popular platformers like Mario. However there are points where you will end up turning as the level is not a straight line, when that happens the camera remains parallel to the character while maintaining a certain distance throughout, which includes moments when your character jumps towards the screen which is an example of a dynamic camera angle.

I chose this game in particular because it’s an example of how camera dynamics can ultimately create a new genre in a sense. Like in movies, camera works don’t just provide a visual of the audience but a whole new perspective.

A brief overview of the Havok Physics Engine

At 2K Czech, games demanded a physics solution that can scale efficiently and handle highly detailed interactive environments. Having recently moved to the next generation of Havok Physics, Havok’s new physics technology is able to make highly efficient utilization of all available hardware cores with a very lean runtime memory footprint. This combination allows us to deliver the high quality simulation at the scale we need and we are really looking forward to making some incredible games with the new technology.” -Laurent Gorga, Technical Director at 2K Czech.

Laurent Gorga, 2K Czech’s Technical Director, further added that “At 2K Czech, our games demand a physics solution that can scale efficiently and handle highly detailed interactive environments. Having recently moved to the next generation of Havok Physics, we’ve been blown away by how Havok’s new physics technology is able to make highly efficient utilization of all available hardware cores with a very lean runtime memory footprint.”

Developed by the Irish company Havok, the eponymous Havok Physics is a physics engine designed for video games to allow for real-time interaction between objects in 3D. The engine uses dynamic simulation to allow for ragdoll physics. The company was founded by Hugh Reynolds and Dr. Steven Collins in 1998 in Trinity College Dublin where much of its development is still carried out. Dr. Steven Collins currently acts as course director to Interactive Entertainment Technology in Trinity College Dublin, as well as lecturing in real-time rendering. Havok can also be found in Autodesk 3ds Max as a bundled plug-in called Reactor. A plugin for Autodesk Maya animation software and an extra for Adobe Director’s Shockwave are also available.

As a result Havok offers the fastest and most robust collision detection and physical simulation technology available, which is why it has become the ideal physics engine to go to within the games industry and has been used by leading game developers in over 400 launched titles and many more in development.

Havok Physics is fully multi-threaded and cross-platform optimized for leading game platforms including, Xbox 360™, Playstation® 4, PlayStation®3 computer entertainment system, PC Games for Windows, PlayStation Vita®, Wii™, Wii U™, Android™, iOS, Apple Mac OS and Linux.

In 2008 Havok released details of its new Cloth and Destruction middleware. Cloth deals with simulation of character garments and soft bodies while Destruction provides tools for creation of destructible and deformable environments. Havok Cloth was the company’s most widely adopted and bestselling piece of software to date.

At GDC 2009 Havok showcased the first details of its forth coming artificial intelligence tools which will allow for better performing AI in games without the need for the developers to create their own AI models.

Whenever people say “Havok Physics”, all I can think of is The Elder Scrolls: Oblivion.  One of its major selling points was Havok Physics.  Anyone who has played that game knows how messed up Havok Physics can get, and how silly of situations you can create with it. Grand Theft Auto 4 also uses Havok Physics.

It was also used throughout the Halo games from Halo 2 onwards. In the Halo 3 engine The Halo 3 physics engine runs calculations on every single frame of animation, similarly to the collision detection engine. The engine is capable of calculating, among other things, elasticity on portions of character models; and bullet ricochet.

Character models are quite elastic at points, a characteristic that is clearly demonstrated by the Character Stretch Glitch’s presence in the game. The elasticity helps to improve realism at slower speeds. Only some parts of a character’s model are elastic; if you look closely at screenshots of the aforementioned glitch, you will find that the rigid parts of Spartans’ and Marines’ armor don’t stretch.

The physics engine utilizes an optimization found in many video game physics engines: objects that remain at rest for several seconds are temporarily exempted from physics calculations (but not collision detection) until they are disturbed again; this is why floating Crates and Fusion coils can remain floating in the air until the round is restarted or the items are disturbed. An object is considered “disturbed” if it is moved, picked up (in Forge), or if something collides with it.[5] The optimization is likely based on the premise that an object that isn’t moving now isn’t likely to move in the near future unless something moves it or it moves on its own.

Havok has announced the launch of the third major iteration to its Havok Physics technology that features “significant technical innovations” in performance, memory utilization, usability, and is a “major leap forward” for in-game physics simulation. The release is specifically targeted towards next-generation consoles, mobile devices, and PCs with full compatibility and support for current devices.

According to Andew Bond, Vice President of Technology for Havok, this version has resulted in a “new engine core built around fully continuous simulation that enables maximum physical fidelity with unprecedented performance speeds. Beta versions of the technology have been in the hands of a number of leading developers for some time and we have seen dramatic performance gains with simulations running twice as fast or more, and using up to 10 times less memory. Additionally the new core’s performance is extremely predictable, eliminating performance spikes.”